Categories of Jihad

Posted: January 23, 2013 in Categories of Jihad, Ibn Al-Qayyim

By Abu Amina Elias for

Ibn Al-Qayyim wrote in his book, Provisions for the Hereafter:

Struggle for the sake of Allah (al-jihad) has four categories:

  1. Jihad against the Self.
  2. Jihad against Satan.
  3. Jihad against the disbelievers.
  4. Jihad against the hypocrites.

Jihad against the Self has four categories:

  1. Struggle to learn the Guidance and Religion of Truth, without which there is no success or happiness in this life or the next. If this is missing then there is misery in both realms (this life and the Hereafter).
  2. Struggle to act in accordance with what is learned; however, simply knowing without acting, even though it brings no harm, also brings no benefit.
  3. Struggle to preach Islam, and to educate whoever was not taught it; otherwise, he will be one of those who conceal the Guidance and Revelations; his knowledge did not benefit him, nor save him from the punishment of Allah.
  4. Struggle to bear patiently the difficulties involved in calling people to Allah and the insults of people, bearing all that for the sake of Allah.

If a person achieves all these four levels, then he will be one of the Rabbaniyun (learned teachers). The Salaf (righteous predecessors) were agreed that the scholar does not deserve to be called a learned teacher unless he knows the truth, acts in accordance with it, and teaches it to others. Thus, whoever knows, acts, and teaches like that will be called great in the kingdoms of the heavens.

Jihad against Satan has two categories:

  1. Struggle to defend from what is thrown into the heart of the servant of uncertainty and doubts which undermine Faith.
  2. Struggle to defend from what is thrown into the heart of corrupt intentions and lusts.

The first category is followed by certainty (in Faith); the second is followed by patience. Allah Almighty said:

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ‏

We made from among them leaders guiding by Our command when they were patient and certain of Our signs.

[Surah As-Sajda 32:24]

Allah tells us that leadership in religion is attained through patience and certainty of faith. Patience wards off desires and certainty wards off doubts.

Jihad against the hypocrites and the disbelievers has four categories:

  1. Struggle with the heart.
  2. Struggle with the tongue.
  3. Struggle with one’s wealth.
  4. Struggle with one’s self.

Jihad against the disbelievers is more often with the hand, and Jihad against the hypocrites is more often with the tongue.

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.

فصل‏:‏ مراتب الجهاد

إذَا عُرِفَ هذا فالجهادُ أربع مراتب‏:‏ جهادُ النفس وجهادُ الشيطان وجهادُ الكفار وجهادُ المنافقين‏.‏

فجهاد النفس أربعُ مراتب أيضاً‏:‏

إحداها‏:‏ أَنْ يُجاهِدَها على تعلُّم الهُدى، ودين الحق الذي لا فلاح لها ولا سعادة في معاشها ومعادها إلا به ومتى فاتها عِلمُه شقيت في الدَّارين‏.‏

الثانية‏:‏ أن يُجاهدها على العمل به بعد علمه، وإلا فمجرَّدُ العلم بلا عمل إن لم يَضُرَّها لم ينفعْها‏.‏

الثالثة‏:‏ أن يُجاهدها على الدعوة إليه وتعليمِهِ مَنْ لا يعلمهُ وإلا كان مِن الذين يكتُمون ما أنزل الله مِن الهُدى والبينات ولا ينفعُهُ علمُهُ ولا يُنجِيه مِن عذاب الله‏.‏

الرابعة‏:‏ أن يُجاهِدَها على الصبر على مشاقِّ الدعوة إلى الله، وأذى الخلق ويتحمَّل ذلك كله لله‏.‏ فإذا استكمل هذه المراتب الأربع صار من الربَّانِيينَ فإن السلفَ مُجمِعُونَ على أن العَالِمَ لا يَستحِقُّ أن يُسمى ربَّانياً حتى يعرِفَ الحقَّ ويعملَ به ويُعَلِّمَه فمَن علم وَعَمِلَ وعَلَّمَ فذاكَ يُدعى عظيماً في ملكوتِ السموات‏

وأما جهادُ الشيطان فمرتبتان إحداهما‏:‏ جهادُه على دفع ما يُلقى إلى العبد مِن الشبهات والشُّكوكِ القادحة في الإيمان‏.‏

الثانية‏:‏ جهادهُ على دفع ما يُلقى إليه من الإرادات الفاسدة والشهواتِ، فالجهادُ الأول يكون بعده اليقين، والثانى يكون بعدَه الصبر‏.‏ قال تعالى‏:‏ ‏وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ‏ ‏[‏السجدة‏:‏ 24‏]‏ فأخبر أن إمامة الدين إنما تُنال بالصبر واليقين فالصبر يدفع الشهواتِ والإرادات الفاسدة واليقينُ يدفع الشكوك والشبهات‏.‏

وأما جهادُ الكفار والمنافقين فأربع مراتب‏:‏ بالقلب واللِّسان والمالِ والنفسِ وجهادُ الكفار أخصُّ باليد وجهادُ المنافقين أخصُّ باللسان

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